Notes on Natural Science

B.ELEd 1st Year Notes on Natural Science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances.

Important Feature of Natural Science

The natural sciences aim to acquire knowledge about the natural world. The scientific method is a key feature of what makes the natural sciences so scientific. The underlying methodology that ​binds all disciplines within the natural sciences together is so important that we may even use it to distinguish “real” or “good” science from “bad” science and even pseudo-science. Within this method, evidence and justification play a very important role.  Each discipline within the natural sciences aims to produce knowledge about different aspects of the natural world. In this sense, each discipline within the natural sciences will tweak its methodology somewhat to fit its particular purpose and scope. Nevertheless, all disciplines within the natural sciences will broadly have a shared underlying scope, methodology, and purpose.

Why Study Natural Science?

The importance of natural sciences is undeniable. Everything from your daily vitamin to your home’s fuel come from the natural sciences. Science even offers you peace of mind. For example, you know you won’t float away because physics teaches you about gravity. Medical advancements, technological advancements, and engineering advancements all stem from the study of the natural sciences.

Natural science is a great hands-on field that involves a lot of research and lab work. Best of all, it helps people every day. But, how do you know if studying natural sciences is right for you? Earning a bachelor’s degree in natural science is great for anyone who: plans to attend medical school, wants to cure cancer, enjoys science labs in high school, loves learning about animals, hopes to become an astronaut, or is passionate about the environment.

Different Natural Science Disciplines

There are a number of natural science fields. The two natural science branches are life science and physical science. Life science focuses on living organisms while physical science looks at non-living organisms like matter and particles. The branches are broken down further into the natural science disciplines. The main ones are chemistry, biology, earth science, astronomy, and physics.

Biologists do research and experiments to learn how living organisms work. Some create new products, help save species or study genes. Chemists study atoms and molecules to create practical compounds like medicine or fuel. Physicists study the matter and try to make conclusions about how the universe behaves. Astronomers combine math, physics, and chemistry to study and explain celestial objects.

Astronomy: Space – the final frontier. If the idea of strange new worlds and alien suns appeals to you, you may enjoy the study of astronomy. However, be aware that astronomy is more science than science fiction – but if you have a knack for calculations and love the idea of unlocking the secrets of the big, big universe, astronomy may be right for you.

Chemistry: Chemistry is the science that deals with the elements and how they interact with each other. Chemists investigate the properties of the various elements to help us understand how and why they combine or separate. Chemists find work in food science, law enforcement, chemical engineering, and an array of other fields.

Earth Science: Earth science is the study of Earth’s geological and atmospheric processes, its relation to other planets, and life on Earth. Drawing on meteorology, oceanography, astronomy, and geology, Earth scientists examine the ways in which humans affect and utilize the environment, find new ways to protect the planet, and help people cultivate energy sources, food, and natural resources.

Geology: Geology is the science of identifying minerals and understanding Earth processes. The tools and methods of geology help us understand how the Earth formed, how it has changed, and how it continues to change. Geologists provide private corporations and government agencies with information about a particular area or piece of land, or they might study natural disasters like earthquakes and volcanoes.

Marine Science: Marine science is the study of marine organisms – fish, plankton, whales, sea urchins – and of the ocean environment, including ocean water, the seabed, and so on. Marine scientists work for government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and academic institutions to help us better understand human impacts on the ocean as well as oceanic processes of energy exchange and storm production.

Physics: Physics is the science that focuses on the properties of matter and energy. Physicists examine heat, light, magnetism, electricity, and the inner workings of the atom. Physics degree-holders can gain employment as research scientists, healthcare equipment developers, and engineers in the transportation, defense, and space industries.

Natural Science & Application

A. The Laboratory Method in Natural Sciences

The word ‘Laboratory’ was originally applied to the work-room of a chemist, a place devoted to experimental study in natural sciences. Hence the term Laboratory Method was first widely used in the physical sciences to characterize a teaching procedure that makes use of experimentation with apparatus and materials in order to verify physical laws and other facts.
The Method
The Laboratory Method of teaching science has in recent years come to connote a learning situation somewhat in contrast and opposition to the demonstration method. Some experts believe that the Laboratory Method is the one in which there is maximum pupil activity.
The Laboratory Method is a planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of the problem. It is a procedure involving first-hand experiences with materials or facts derived from investigations or experimentation. Of it, the Laboratory Method is not one that may be used exclusively. Used in conjunction with some other techniques, it may be a very effective means of collecting evidence in the solution of problems.
The Laboratory Method is used in many different ways. It is, for the most part, planned on an individual basis. Of course, group laboratory work can be carried on, but it is less satisfactory. Previously laboratory work was done, separately from classwork and there was hardly any correlation between the two. The trend at present is to merge the laboratory and classroom work, making each supplement the other.
If the Laboratory Method is to produce its maximum effectiveness, it must be planned, directed, and controlled by the teacher with just as much care as is used with a demonstration lesson. Under proper guidance and supervision, the Laboratory Method can yield much in training for the development of skills and techniques.

Techniques of the Laboratory Method

The technique can be conveniently divided into three parts or steps namely,
(I) Introductory steps (ii) Work Period (iii) Culminating activities. Let us discuss each one by one.
Introductory step
In this step which provides for motivation and orientation, the following factors should be taken into account.
(a) Determination of Laboratory work to be done
If the teacher has planned this work in advance, then the first step is an explanation of the problem or other work to be done. This may be called a presentation. Here is the teacher’s opportunity to motivate the students.
But if the work is to be planned co-operatively by the students and the teacher, the first step is to determine by means of class discussion, the nature of the problem or the work to be done.
(b) Determination of the Plan of Work.
The second step is to get clear in mind what is to be done. This may be set forth by the teacher who gives the necessary directions for both individual and group work. Since this work is likely to take more time than one period as it consists of various activities, written directions in the form of guide sheets, manuals, workbooks, and so on should be used.
The introductory step thus considers the problem and the objectives of the work as well as the plan of work to be carried out. After considering the first step, we now discuss the second one-work period.
(ii) Work-Period
The laboratory activity should take the form of a supervised work-period in which groups or individuals have their particular work to do. The students can work individually or collectively on a particular problem or on different problems. Directions must be very specific. The length of the work periods should be determined by the nature of the problems and the objectives. If the laboratory work occupies several days, it may be desirable to have the class meet as a group each day, preferably at the beginning of the period for a discussion of the problems, progress and to receive criticisms, suggestions, or directions from the teacher.
(iii)Culminating Activities
When the members of a class have completed their laboratory work, the class should meet for discussion and organization of findings or for the presentation of the results of individual work. The following types of activities may be used:
1. Students re-state the problem that the group has been working on and explain its nature and importance.
2. Review of the plan for solving the problem and organization of plan for recording the data gathered.
3. Presentation of illustrative material or special contributions by students working on special problems.
4. Where students are working on individual projects, special reports may be given before the group, together with an exhibition of their work.
5. Note-books and written reports may be completed for a final record of work.
6. Work of the class may be exhibited and rated by members of the class or by competent judges from outside.
7. Exhibits of various projects may be set up and explained by then- sponsors.
8. Tests or examinations may be used as a means of measuring achievement relative to certain outcomes.
Since it would be impracticable to have too great a variety of culminating activities, those chosen should be adapted to the particular needs of the class, as well as to the time available. Written reports and summaries may be required to assure adequate participation of all the class in the completion of the work.


In short, the Laboratory Method is a practical procedure that the students have to adopt in order to achieve a planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of problems. Even John Dewey in this book “In The School and Society” published in 1896 set forth his philosophy that we “learn to do by doing”, thereby giving impetus to the Laboratory Method not only in home economics and manual arts but in all other subjects.


Fifteen Benefits of Discussion
1. It helps students explore a diversity of perspectives.
2. It increases students’ awareness of and tolerance for ambiguity or complexity.
3. It helps students recognize and investigate their assumptions.
4. It encourages attentive, respectful listening.
5. It develops a new appreciation for continuing differences.
6. It increases intellectual agility.
7. It helps students become connected to a topic.
8. It shows respect for student voices and experiences.
9. It helps students learn the processes and habits of democratic discourse.
10. It affirms students as co-creators of knowledge.
11. It develops the capacity for the clear communication of ideas and meaning.
12. It develops habits of collaborative learning.
13. It increases the breadth and makes students more emphatic.
14. It helps students develop skills of synthesis and integration.
15. It leads to transformation.
What is leading a discussion in science?
In a group discussion, the teacher and all of the students work on specific content together, using one another’s ideas as resources and connecting disciplinary core ideas and scientific practices. The purposes of a discussion are to build collective knowledge and capability in scientific reasoning goals and to allow students to practice listening, speaking, and interpreting. The teacher and a wide range of students contribute orally, listen actively, and respond to and learn from others’ contributions.
In the classroom, this entails teachers providing support for students to make sense of scientific phenomena through the use of scientific representations to organize data collected during an investigation, crafting claims based on evidence and scientific reasoning, and engaging in argumentation. Through this process, the teacher orchestrates student contributions by allowing space for all students to share their thinking. The teacher should also purposefully select students to share claims and counter-claims that support students to construct a collective understanding of the scientific phenomenon and use talk moves to probe student thinking and connect students’ ideas across the conversation.
Why work on leading a discussion in science?
By leading a group discussion in science, students are not only provided opportunities to share their ideas about science content but also supported to share what they think about other students’ ideas to progress toward a shared understanding of scientific phenomena. Sensemaking discussions centered around student ideas rarely occur in elementary science classrooms. When teachers enact investigation-based science lessons they have the potential to become solely hands-on activities despite research providing evidence that students discussing their ideas supports their learning. Therefore, it is important for novice teachers to learn how sense-making discussions may differ from those they experienced in their own K-12 education. Leading a group discussion in science also supports students in engaging in the scientific practice of argumentation and is complemented by the high-leverage practices of eliciting and interpreting students’ ideas and supporting students to construct scientific explanations and build arguments.
How do teachers lead discussions in science?
For example, in a lesson on insulators and conductors of electric current, a teacher may collect groups’ data about which materials were able to complete a circuit. Then compiling the class date using a scientific representation, the teacher facilitates a discussion about how student observations can serve as evidence for a claim about what materials are conductors of electric current. During the discussion, the teacher probes student thinking with questions, and supports students to connect and compare their ideas.
What is the Discussion Method of Teaching Science?
Discussion Method of Teaching Science
This is an important method of teaching science, which is used in two forms by the teachers. In a first manner, the teacher provides a brief introduction of the topic to the students for discussion purposes, after which students make a detailed study regarding the topic under the supervision of a teacher.
Such kind of study process can be conducted either individually or in group form by the students. The teacher permits the students to conduct such kind of study either in the classroom or to do it in any other place where they can get the necessary source for it.
For this purpose, a limited or specified time is being permitted to the students. If students find any kind of problem, then they can ask the teacher for the necessary help and assistance. After cessation of permitted time, all the students are required to answer various questions imposed either by the teacher or by the other students.
Thus through such questions, a discussion begins to take place in the classroom and logical answers are obtained from the students. The teacher can ask the students to write the important points of the studies on the blackboard or can perform this task himself also. Thus, it is in this way that some specific topic is being covered by this method.
The second manner in which this method is used by the teacher consists of the introduction of the topic in brief length by the teacher during which he explains various new concepts and terms in front of them. To ensure that all the students understand the information provided by him and can explain their views, generally, students are divided into different categories by the teacher.
Different parts of the topic are being assigned to different groups. Sometimes, the provision of the group leader is also made by the teacher. Consideration time is permitted to the students in which they can gather various kinds of information relating to the topic.
A day is being fixed on which they will have to explain the assigned topic. On the scheduled day, the teacher asks various kinds of questions answers of which are provided by the students on basis of their observations and information collected through various sources. In this manner, one-by-one, all the groups are required to explain or to give their views regarding the allotted topic with soundproofs and evidence.
When to Use:
This method can be used by the teacher when the number of students in the class is limited. If their number is large then use of the second method can be used in which they are being divided into certain groups. The only experienced and more able student should make use of this method.

Merits and Demerits of Discussion Method of Teaching Science?

The Merits and Demerits of the Discussion Method of Teaching Science are as follows:
Merits of Discussion Method
This method offers the following merits:
a. As all the students are permitted the opportunity to get involved in the learning process, thus they acquire a sense of belongings, by which they get motivated to conduct more serious efforts in gathering information from various sources.
b. All the students try to give more practical and logical reasons for their beliefs and dis-beliefs as a result of which, feeling of healthy competition gets developed in them. Such kind of competitive atmosphere helps in motivating the students to get more and more knowledge from various sources.
c. When the students have to express their views and opinions in front of a large number of students, they achieve new levels of self-confidence, which help them in getting success in future life.
Demerits of Discussion Method
This method has certain limitations, some of which are as follows:
Students can face various kinds of problems in gathering the information relating from various sources if the teacher is not alert and does not take heed in executing his responsibilities properly.
As the level of mental capabilities of students is found to be different in the same class, as a result of which sometimes it is found that group discussion gets dominated by only some students,-who are more intelligent and possess the confidence to explain their views and ideas.
c. If there is a lack of proper supervision on the discussion then a situation of indiscipline can arise in the classroom.

C. Field Survey

A field survey is defined as the collection and gathering of information at the local level by conducting primary surveys. The primary surveys are also called field surveys. These are an essential component of geographic inquiry and are carried out through observation, interviews, sketching, measurement, etc.
Social & Economic studies are conducted in definitive geographical parameters. Geography being a field science, a geographical inquiry almost always needs to be supplemented through well-planned field surveys. Such surveys enhance our understanding of patterns of spatial distributions, their associations, and relationships both at the macro as well as micro-level.
Field surveys help in comprehending the prevailing situation and processes in totality and at the ground level. Field surveys facilitate the collection of local-level information that is not available through secondary sources.
So to summarize, Field surveys are required so that the problem under investigation is studied in depth as per the predefined objectives.
Usually, the steps involved in a field survey are;
Step 1. Defining the Problem:
First, the problem to be studied is defined precisely.  
Step 2. Objectives:
Objectives and purposes of the survey are outlined and requirements delineated  in accordance of these, suitable tools of acquisition of data and methods of analysis
are chosen.
Step 3. Scope:
Scope of the survey is;
  • the geographical area studied
  • the time period of inquiry
  • (if required) themes of studies
Step 4. Tools and Techniques of information collection:
Various types of tools are required to collect information. These include:
i. Recorded and Published Data: This data is collected from government agencies, non-governmental organizations and it provides base information about the problem. For example, on one hand, Local Government Office can provide information about households, persons while physical features like relief, drainage, vegetation, land use,
etc. can be traced out from the topographical maps.
ii. Field Observations: These are very important & necessary inputs that help in finding the characteristics and associations of geographic phenomena. Here sketching and photography are helpful tools.
iii. Measurement: Some field surveys demand on-site measurement of
Objects and events. It involves the use of appropriate equipment including state-of-art equipment like DGPS.
iv. Interviewing: In all field surveys, personal interviews are needed to
gather information about social issues, problems, practical difficulties through recording the experiences and knowledge of each individual.
Step 5. Compilation and Computation:
The information thus collected is organized systematically so as to make a meaningful interpretation. Then an analysis of all the information collected is undertaken to achieve the set objectives.
Notes, field sketches, photographs, case studies, etc. are first organized according to the theme & subthemes of the study. Similarly, questionnaire and schedule based information is tabulated on the same pattern.
Step 6. Cartographic Applications:
Maps and diagrams are used for giving visual Impressions of variations in the phenomena.
Sep 7. Presentations:
The field study report is prepared in concise form and it contains all the details of the procedures followed, methods, tools, and techniques employed. At the end of the report, a summary of the findings of the investigation is provided.

Excursions in Natural Science Learning

An Excursion is a trip by a group of people, usually made for leisure, education, or physical purposes. It is often an adjunct to a longer journey or visits a place, sometimes for other (typically work-related) purposes.
The Science Excursion is a project aimed to bring students closer to different pharmaceutical fields or scientific topics. It is organized usually during major EPSA events when it is coordinated by the Science Coordinator and the Reception Committee or locally when it is coordinated by students from Member Associations. Through this activity, students can visit different facilities, such as pharmacies, industrial complexes, universities, and research facilities, etc., and gain an additional view upon discussed topics during EPSA activities or faculty lectures in an interactive way.

What is the Importance of Excursion in Teaching Science?
Planning of Excursion used in Teaching Science
A wise Teacher will always use the resources of the community for purpose of enrichment, supplementation, and correlation of his classwork. Community, whether rural or urban offers a large number of opportunities that are of immense value from an educational viewpoint. Some of the community resources, appropriate for science teaching are:
i. Museum. Zoological parks and Botanical gardens.
ii. Chemical and other industrial plants.
The entire planning and conduct should be done by the students under the guidance of the teacher. While it should be an enjoyable experience it should also be a serious undertaking. Each student should feel that he has some responsibility not only for appropriate observation, information, or other skills but also for co­operating with the teacher and other members of the trip. There should be the following three major steps for the proper organization of an excursion:
A. Follow-up Work:
The value of the trip can be greatly increased by a planned follow-up. A few suggested activities are listed below:
a. Writing letters to the newspapers or authorities concerned on problems brought out by the trip of suggestions for improvement of facilities for tourists.
b. Written papers, sketches, drawings, paintings, assignments of articles for bulletin-board or school magazine.
c. Preparation of guide sheets for another group who would take the same trip on some other occasion.
d. General discussion on the trip with students, their questions, reactions, and suggestions for similar future trips should be invented.
B. Conducting the Trip:
It is up to the teacher-in-charge to conduct the trip in his best possible way so that there is no mishap on misconduct and all take it as a source of enjoyment and education.
C. Preparing the Guide Sheet:
A Guide Sheet, which is nothing but detailed planning, should contain two major divisions. Learning activities, Physical details.
Items relating to learning activities should include:
i. Particular processes, devices, or departments to be observed, Items relating to physical Detail should include- Transportation arrangements, First-aid- emergency provisions, Provision for refreshment, and meals and Dress.
ii. Lists of questions, terms, principles, Personal equipment-cameras, binoculars, umbrellas, Provision for refreshment and meals, Time schedule, Routes, or itinerary to be followed, and their application to be studied.
iii. Responsibilities of individuals on various committees for observation, data collection, recordings, etc.
iv. Apparatus and materials to be taken, such as graph paper, rulers, tape, thermometer, lens, tape-recorder, etc.
In order for that trip well-planned, it is usually necessary that one or more members of the class have some fist hand contact with and information about the place to be visited, its resources and information about the place to be visited, its resources and possibilities. Sometimes it is desirable that the teacher has such an overview, in order that he may guide and direct discussion, planning, and preparation.
Certain administrative details should also be carefully pre-planned such as:
i. Transportation such as Government of Private buses & Railway concession order should be arranged sufficiently before the commencement of the tour.
ii. Arrangements with other teachers. If students are to miss other classes, the co-operation of the teachers concerned should be parents.

Brain Storming in Natural Science

Brainstorming is the name given to a situation when a group of pupil meets to generate new ideas around a specific area of interest. Brainstorming is a tool for creating new ideas for students. It is also used as a pedagogical strategy for stimulating interest in learning.
The meaning of Brainstorming
In the context of teaching, brainstorming is a strategy or tool of teaching used by the teacher in which maximum or all the students participate by responding or presenting views on one topic. This technique encourages new ideas among students that would never have happened under normal circumstances.
Brainstorming can be explained in the following ways:-
It is a process designed to obtain the maximum number of ideas relating to a specific area of interest.
It is a technique where a group of pupils put social inhabitations and rules aside with the aim of generating new ideas and solutions.
It is a technique that maximizes the ability to generate new ideas.
Brainstorming can either be traditional or advanced.
(a) Traditional brainstorming
Traditionally for Brainstorming pupils gather in a room and forward their ideas as they occur to them. They are told to lose their inhabitations and no ideas shall be judged. Here pupils should build on ideas called out by other people.
(b) Advanced Brainstorming
It is an extension of traditional brainstorming and makes the whole process easier and effective. Advanced brainstorming uses new processes and new techniques to reduce inhabitations, for example, creative and lateral thinking techniques.
Brainstorming software
New material for simulation and recording ideas.
Brainstorming in education
In the field of education brainstorming is a large or small group of activities that encourage the student to focus on a topic and contribute to the free flow of ideas. In this process
  • The teacher begins the session by posing a question, problem, or by introducing a topic.
  • The student then expresses possible answers, relevant words, and ideas.
  • The contribution is accepted without criticism or judgment and is then summarized on a whiteboard by the teacher.
  • These ideas are examined, usually in an open class discussion format.
Purpose of Brainstorming
  • To focus student attention on a particular topic.
  • To generate particular ideas.
  • To teach acceptance and respect for individual differences.
  • To encourage the learner to take a risk in sharing their ideas and opinions.
  • To demonstrate to the student that their knowledge and abilities are valued and accepted.
  • To provide an opportunity for students to share ideas and expand their knowledge by building on each other’s
Characteristic of Brainstorming
  • It is an intellectual activity.
  • Maximum or all students can participate.
  • Each student gives their personal view/ideas.
  • Each idea is neither right nor wrong.
  • It involves divergent thinking.
Brainstorming as a teaching strategy
  • First, a small group of students is formed. They are asked to sit in a group and are provided with a particular issue or topic.
  • The teacher, as the group leader, then asks group members to think about the problem and give their ideas. They are advised to find as many solutions to the problem as they can find. They are instructed not to criticize other ideas but they are free to make attention to other ideas. Students are encouraged to put forward suggestions without hesitation even if they seem to come up with unusual and unorthodox ideas.
  • Students’ ideas are to be listened to and accepted patiently, without passing any judgment or comment of any sort until the session is over.
  • It stimulated and provides a varied instructional approach.
  • Highly motivating.
  • Increase task focus.
  • Promotes spontaneity and creativity.
  • Efficient and procedure.
  • Involves participants in ownership of ideas.
  • Encourages creativity.

Natural Science is, by its very nature, closely linked to Environmental Education. 

Natural science is by its very nature, closely linked to environmental education. According to Horn (2010:18), environmental education is becoming increasingly important as a result of an ever-increasing population and the pressure that it places on natural resources. All teachers are being called upon to increase environmental awareness among learners. In teaching natural science, the environmental ethic must constantly form part of our teaching.
The tremendous growth in the earth’s population has resulted in worldwide scarcity and poverty, not of money, but of far more important things, namely those things that are essential for life, such as oxygen, water, and food. There are also more waste products (Horn, 2010). Therefore Natural Science provides an opportunity to bring modern and challenging social and scientific issues into the classroom.
Environmental education offers science education contexts that increase involvement and motivation. Environmental education is therefore linked with Natural science. The natural science learning areas teach learners science process skills to interpret and use scientific, environmental, and technological knowledge and to come to value and take responsibility for relationships between science, technology, people, and environment.
While learners plan and conduct inquiries using diverse sources of information, including their own investigations, they come to know and appreciate the workings of the natural world and how ecosystems benefit people (Conservation education, 2011). The three Natural Science Learning Outcomes and the specified content for the different phases, provide opportunities for studying local plants, animals, and ecosystems, investigating our impacts on biodiversity, and to do problem-solving around conservation issues. Environmental education connects learners to the world around them, teaching them about both natural and built environments. Environmental education sparks the imagination and unlocks creativity in learners and it offers experiential opportunities for experiential learning outside of the classroom for learners to see the interconnections of social, ecological, economic, and cultural.

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