B.EL.ED Third Year (Lucknow University ) – UNIT 04 Pedagogy of Core Discipline (Mathematics, Natural Science and Environmental Science)

The meaning of co-curricular activities revolves around its different features and characteristics. For the overall development of a child, the curriculum is not only a single criterion.


The holistic growth as well as to develop the various facets of personality development of children; classroom teaching should be supplemented with co-curricular activities.


These out of class activities affect all domains of life such as cognitive (intellectual), emotional, social, moral, cultural, and aesthetic. Co-curricular activities meaning are more focused upon cognitive aspects thereby help in intellectual development. 


Competitiveness, excellence, quality achievements, creativeness, and enthusiasm are few of the ethics of extra-curricular activities and also strengthen the meaning of co-curricular activities in school.


Non-academic activity in the form of co-curricular one provides support to students to venture into professional fields like fashion, music, painting, art, acting, photography, printing, and many more.


That’s why students need co-curricular activities, which helps in enhancing many skill developments. The importance of co-curricular activities has increased manifold in modern life. However, co-curricular meaning varies to a little bit as per place, time, and space.


The extracurricular activities definitions by leading modern educational thinkers and others are:


“Activities sponsored or recognized by a school or college which are not part of the academic curriculum but are acknowledged to be an essential part of the life of an educational institution. Co-curricular activities include sports, school bands, student newspapers, etc. They may also be classed as ‘Extracurricular’ i.e. activities carried on outside the regular course of study; activities outside the usual duties of a job, as extra class activities”- according to The International Dictionary of Education (1977).


“Co-curricular activities were mainly organized after school hours and so were the extracurricular but they are not an integral part of the activities of the school as its curricular work”- according to Aggarwal (2000).


“Co-curricular activities may be defined as the activities undertaken to strengthen the classroom learning as well as other activities both inside and outside the classroom to develop the personality of the child”– according to Bhatia (1996).


“Various social and other types of activities like literary, dramatic, social services, etc. which attracted the attention of the child were considered as extracurricular activities. Extracurricular activities have been renamed by educationists as co-curricular, which implies that all these activities are a part of the school curriculum”.- according to Mittal (1999).


Benefits of co-curricular activities


Co-curricular activities are vital because even though they are not a part of the core curriculum, they play a very crucial role in giving the young boys and girls the ability to shape up their lives. The school activities have to be designed purposefully to give an apt mix of student’s participation in academics and also to create a chance for all-round development. The importance of co-curricular activities cannot be ignored.


To understand the importance of co-curricular activities, let us see how these activities benefit students:



Enhances overall personality

Co-curricular activities in school help to enhance the overall personality of the students. These prepare them to take challenges heads up and enable them to think critically. Experiences and skills acquired through these co-curricular activities make students proactive and prepared for their future endeavors. Therefore, the importance of co-curricular activities cannot be denied in overall personality development.


Strengthen Self Confidence

The goal of co-curricular activities is to give better fitness to students and inculcate a sense of sportsmanship, competitive spirit, leadership, meticulousness, cooperation and team spirit. Thus, many institutions are appreciating the importance of co-curricular activities and integrating a number of co-curricular activities in their syllabus and making it mandatory for the students to choose their interest in co-curricular activities from a list of options. The hidden motive behind all this is to develop self-confidence and trust in others.


Develop Specialized Skills

Co-curricular activities in school help hone the talents of young minds and give them an opportunity to develop their specialized skills. Competitions that are organized can create a competitive environment and help them work towards continuous improvement in their skills.


Therefore, a number of schools are now understanding the importance of co-curricular activities right from the early stages of school so that students can benefit in the future as well.


Improve Academic Performance

Studies have shown that students pursuing their hobbies achieved better results in their studies. Their academic performance goes way up as they learn to balance their co-curricular activities with their academic pursuits. They also better understand how to manage their time efficiently and also increase their interest in the school. It is essential to understand the importance of co-curricular activities in improving academic performance.


Greater Opportunities

In this competitive era, records of participation in co-curricular activities can act as game changers during admissions into various courses. Students pursuing any co-curricular activities of their choice are given preference over those who are not involved in any such activities. Therefore, the importance of co-curricular activities is immense in their future pursuits.


Exposure to New Activities

Students are introduced to a whole new horizon of activities that give them better insights and let them choose what they enjoy and what they wish to learn. It broadens new horizons for them. These activities stimulate playing, painting, acting, dancing, singing, speaking, and many other skills in students. Thus, co-curricular activities broaden the scope of students in learning and exploring new activities. Thus, the importance of co-curricular activities is a lot in this aspect.


Builds Sense of Responsibilities

When students in their early life are given some responsibility or a task to handle like an application of first aid or managing the class painting board, etc. their efficiency to handle such situations becomes much better. This fosters a sense of responsibility and accountability. 


Enhance Physical and Mental Health

Co-curricular activities require students to stay active at school by participating. As students have no option to skip these activities such as athletics, gymnastics, yoga, indoor games, and meditation, etc. because they are part of their curriculum. This makes the importance of co-curricular activities very high. 


Co-curricular activities are helpful for students as they enhance physical fitness as well as mental health of a student and also help in relieving students from academic stress.


Role and Importance of Co-Curricular Activities at School


Schools include Co-Curricular activities with academic curriculum so that students develop skills beyond knowledge of subjects. Co-Curricular activities also help improve teaching techniques at school. Know here importance of Co-curricular activities at school.


Every activity in school life plays a significant role in development of students. Co-curricular activities are an essential part of school life and helps in enhancing learning process of students at school. Co-Curricular activities are compulsory activities which is important for every student to participate. Co-curricular are designed and balanced with academic curriculum so that every student gets to learn beyond subjects.


Co-curricular activities are meant to bring social skills, intellectual skills, moral values, personality progress and character appeal in students. It includes athletics, cultural events, Library activities, science lab activities, classroom activitiescreative arts and meditation etc.


Role and Importance of Co-Curricular Activities at School –


  • Proper Education – Since, co-curricular activities are merged with academics therefore, it ensures that students get to learn effectively. Science or Computer Lab practical, experiments and projects are part of co-curricular activities.
  • Cultural Values – Students get to learn by cultural events including national events and traditional events from different faiths including Gandhi Jayanti, Indepedence Day, Republic Day, as well as Diwali, Eid, Baisaki, Onam, Raksha Bandhan, and many other cultural events. Students get to learn about these events through books as well as co-curricular activities based on different cultures organised by Schools.
  • Personality Development – Students perform co-curricular activities in schools, which help them sharpen their communication skills, expression skills, public speaking, participation and sense of belonging through different activities like debates, recitation. Art and craft, creative art competitions, classroom activities like reading, group discussions etc.

Why extracurricular is important with academics?


  • Physical and Mental Health – Co-curricular activities require students to stay active at school by participation since, students have no option to skip these activities as it’s a part of their curriculum. Students have to be a part of co-curricular activities like athletics, gymnastics, yoga, indoor games, and meditation etc. These activities are beneficial for students’ physical fitness as well as mental health and they are relieved from academic stress.
  • Learning Experience – Co-curricular activities are good for improving students learning experience at school which improves their attendance at school and increases participation rate by students in co-curricular activities. Of course, students get a really good excuse for a break from academics.
  • Team Leadership Skills – Co-curricular activities at school are designed in groups so that students can participate along with their classmates. This helps students develop leadership skills, team integrity and coordination skills.

How to find goals and focus on achieving them?


  • Moral Values – The students through co-curricular activities learn essential ethical values about different cultures, religions, events of national and international importance as well as discipline and school life ethics. They learn to understand different religions, values, social ethics, patience, empathy, motivational skills, compatibility and contentment.

Do you know?


Assembly Prayer is also a part of co-curricular education as it teaches students discipline, moral values and meditation.


What is the role of co-curricular activities in a student’s life?


Co-curriculum activities are included in the list of school activities to impart a life-like experience to students. These activities enhance the learning process and help students perform better in academics or other scholastic activities. Every kid is unique and requires time to understand his or her key skills and areas of strength. Being a part of something bigger makes them feel more important and brings out inner self-confidence.  


1.Sense of belonging

Even the youngest kids in the school pick their friends. Interacting with a bunch of other kids who share similar interests helps them in the process of making new friends. This also means that kids who do not take part in co-curricular activities have very few to no friends at all. Just like we have a social life in our workplace, kids have their group of friends in school.



Meaningful friendships are based on mutual trust, respect, and understanding. Kids might not understand the importance of their actions which can cause distress to their friends and educators. Participating in team sports, games, or other engagements helps kids realize how important it is to look out for mutual goals and achievements.



Kids can sometimes behave in an inexplicable selfish and rude manner. This is a basic instinct as they are trying to get the best for themselves. School resources that are used in CCAs on the other hand are meant for everyone. Thus children need to learn how to share a Frisbee or a Carr om board for instance.


4.Peer to peer interaction

Most scholastic activities require students to perform tasks on notebooks, computers, or boards. This minimizes the opportunity for essential student exchange in terms of ideas. Modern-day school curriculum have achieved great feats in terms of student interactions. However, these measures are not put in place to substitute healthy interactions during a football match or a debating event.



Many kids have a shorter span of focus and concentration. Parents tend to put a lot of pressure on such kids to complete their homework on time. Academic performance can also suffer due to such constraints. Co-curricular activities like Chess help kids focus better on their studies. It also develops mental abilities and problem-solving capabilities.



Modern-day career landscape looks very different compared to industrial times. Most organizations today are looking for professionals with Out of the box thinking skills. Yet these skills are not developed overnight. Artistic CCA activities like painting, sketching, and pottery can help bring out the best in kids.


7.Feel Involved

Kids spend over a decade in schools, this might feel like a long time. A tunnel with no light for students who feel omitted or left out in their schools. If you feel your kid is lethargic and non-enthusiastic towards school activities, you need to consult school educators for your kid to narrow down co-curricular activities. This will help kids realize their hobbies and passion. School can be made easy with CCA activities.



Debating or group discussion events help kids question their own opinions and elucidate them with proper reasons. This way kids realize and understand different viewpoints and perspectives.


9.Develops Patience

Children can be very restless at times and this might create problems during examination. Kids tend to overlook important details associated with questions. Comprehension can also be cumbersome for some kids. Mental Math or Math Puzzles help kids comprehend better. In the process of light hearted learning kids tend to develop patience and interest. 


Schools can be your kid’s best friend if you let them be themselves and discover all the fun things they can do at school. Not only will your kid be more enthusiastic, but they will also focus more on their responsibilities like homework and studies. Regular participation or attendance will make your child more groomed and well behaved. 


Importance of co-curricular activities


“The Extracurricular activity in which I was most engaged -debating-helped shape my interest in public policy”, enunciated by Joseph Stiglitz, American Economist, and Policymaker. Let us go through the following points to understand the importance of co-curricular activities.


1.Improves Communication Skills

Communication skills are extremely important in today’s competitive world. Moreover, kids need time to understand how to express themselves, active participation in the debate or extempore speech can help them relinquish their barriers.


2.Helps to deal with Anxiety

Anxiety and stress buildups are common among adults, many a time these problems arise due to poor time management skills. Very few or no supplementary time management courses are available to build up this crucial life skill.


3.Develops Methodical Time- Management Skills

One needs to learn time allocation and management in their school life itself. Balancing scholastic activities with co-curriculum activities will help your kid understand the important principles of work-life balance.


4.Inculcates Moral Values and Decision-making ability

Our sense of justice and moral values stem from early childhood. Even though various factors like family background and individual traits play a key role, participation in co-curricular activities helps kids gather their thoughts.


5.Teaches Self-motivation

When a kid struggles to learn a new skill in early childhood, he or she experiences failure and feels rejected at times. However, they keep trying and learn to motivate themselves. Identification and rectification may sound complex for kids in junior grades but a few kids astonishingly pick up their grades after performing poorly in an examination. Such situations are stressful for kids and parents alike. Teaching methods play an important role and so does self-motivation and realization.


6.Promotes Discipline in Behavior 

Discipline and punctuality are an indispensable part of professional life. Unfortunately, these skills become extremely difficult to impart in the latter years of life. Thus our schooling systems have been devised to inculcate discipline in students. Morning assembly is a very important component of discipline training in schools and falls under the category of CCA (Co-curricular activity).


7.Creates a sense of Responsibility 

We have all come across the titles of Prefect, School Captain, House Captain, Sports Captain Class Monitor, Football Captain or Cricket Captain so on, and so forth. These are nothing but positions of responsibility offered at early childhood days to develop leadership qualities. Kids participating or engaging in such roles not only evolve leadership skills but also learn to be accountable for their actions.


8.Analytical Ability

Participating in the Mathematics Club or Mathematics exhibition are engaging recreational activities for kids. These activities include games and mathematical modelling alike which can be fun and challenging at the same time. These activities help children analyze situations on their own.


Many parents restrict their kids and keep them from participating in co-curricular activities organized by their schools. This impacts the social life of a student and hampers their overall well-being. Kids refrained from CCAs may perform well in their schools but the impact starts reflecting in personality as well as performance during Graduation years. Parents need to focus on Scholastic as well as co-scholastic activities to help develop hobbies in children. These hobbies help kids navigate through the muddy waters of Adulthood.


List of some co-curricular activities 


Let’s look at a few co-curricular activities to have a better understanding of all the activities which are available for your kids. While picking a school for your kid, you might as well have a look at all the co-curricular facilities the school has to offer. The list is inexhaustible as schools and education boards are constantly updating the available activities to provide the most likely experience to kids.


The list of Indoor Co-curricular activities is as follows:

  • Music 
  • Dance
  • Drama
  • Drawing and painting
  • Abacus
  • Mental Mathematics or Vedic Mathematics
  • Cooking 
  • Weaving
  • Clay modeling
  • Debating
  • Mathematics Club 
  • Story Telling
  • Tailoring
  • Rangoli
  • Cardboard work
  • Youth Parliament
  • Mathematics Exhibition
  • Model United Nation
  • Student self-government
  • Art and craft

The list of Outdoor Co-curricular activities is as follows:

  • Horse Riding
  • Yoga
  • Athletics
  • Martial Arts or Self defense
  • Bicycling
  • Gardening
  • Cricket
  • Tennis
  • Mass parade
  • Mass drill
  • Swimming
  • Football
  • Basketball
  • Volleyball
  • Educational Excursion 
  • Community Lunch
  • Morning assembly
  • Excursions
  • Community service or volunteering activities

Co-curricular activities add balance to student life and help to facilitate Physical, Emotional, and Cognitive development in kids. Behavioral or concentration problems are common among kids. Allow them to participate in school activities and they will learn social behavior. Stress is really bad for kids and hampers their overall development. Various activities conducted by schools will help you in parenting your child better.



Therefore, as students should be given more and more opportunities to explore their interests and abilities, the importance of co-curricular activities cannot be denied. In order to instill the ‘all-rounder’ factor in students, co-curricular activities in school are being integrated in the academic curriculum in schools across several countries in the world. The importance of co-curricular activities in the integrative school curriculum is being appreciated.


The rewards of co-curricular activities in schools have been researched pretty well and it is now ascertained that students who participate in these activities show better academic results, stronger relationships in schools and are more likely to lead a healthy and active lifestyle.

Moreover, students also feel a sense of belonging to the school and have higher self-esteem by participating in structured activities like music, dance, performing arts, etc. In addition to this, students become more motivated to perform better in their academics. This makes the students feel happier, healthier and involved. This establishes the importance of co-curricular activities.


Co-curricular Activities in Science



1.Science Club Project Ideas


Demonstrations of experiments and talks by visiting scientists:

The club could lease with scientists from NECSA and other nearby scientific institutions who could

visit the schools to speak to learners about exciting topics and show them some “science in action”.

This could also be an opportunity for learners to ask about careers in science.

Brainstorming sessions/forum discussions for eager young scientists:


The club could organise for its members (and other interested learners) to meet for talk sessions

where current scientific topics could be discussed. This session could be used to talk about ideas

that might help solve some of the world’s many problems. With a little more initiative, real

scientists and university students could be invited to sit in at these sessions.


Bridge building competitions:

Such competitions are relatively simple to organise and yet extremely fun, educational and

enjoyable. For example, give participants 4 sheets of A4 paper and ask them to build a bridge across

two desks. Then test each bridge by hanging a bottle from it and slowly filling it with water. The

bridge that can hold the most water wins. As you can imagine, bridges are not the only things one

can build. The competition could deal with wheels; catapults; towers; steam cars – just about

anything. To make it more interesting, invite a professional engineer to test the bridges and to

explain why some designs work better than others.


Inter-school project exhibitions or science fairs:

The most exciting part of such a club is the opportunity to meet people from other schools. If

neighbouring schools were encouraged to form similar clubs, then these clubs could communicate

with each other and form some joint organisation with representatives from each school. This larger

group could then organise much bigger projects such as regional science expo’s and other

interesting inter-school events. 


Problem-solving challenge:

This is an easy-to-organise event that would be fun as well as intellectually challenging. The club

could find interesting mathematics or science problems that lie within the capability of the targeted

learners and offer small prizes to those who can solve them. Depending on the level of difficulty,

there could also be prizes for group entries.


Mini research projects:

Many learners may exhibit great interest in a certain aspect of science but lack the motivation to

pursue it. By providing some incentive for them (e.g. obtaining partners from industry who may

also be interested in a certain topic) the club will facilitate and encourage these learners to research

topics that they find interesting.


Tours/excursions to scientific institutions such as NECSA:

Most scientific institutions such as NECSA would welcome the opportunity to take learners for a

tour of their facilities, especially if they were approached by a structured organisation such as a

science club. In this way learners can have the opportunity to visit and see for themselves what goes

on in the scientific world. The science club could also arrange for tours to universities where

learners can obtain an idea of what career they would like to pursue.


Lending Libraries” for sharing of laboratory equipment and texts:

Many of our schools have poor scientific facilities such as laboratory equipment and texts. The

science clubs from different schools could communicate with one another and establish some sort of

lending programme whereby all schools involved would benefit. Such projects may even inspire

outside organizations to sponsor more equipment to such a group of schools.


Student exchange programmes:

Depending on how far and wide this idea spreads, science clubs could organise that certain students

visit other schools from different communities via exchange programmes. In this way they can

bring back ideas and information from other schools and thus benefit from other learners’

experiences. This helps not only build the experience of the learner but also helps bring the people

of the country closer together.


Buddy scheme:

Scientist/engineers in industry could offer to mentor/buddy learners. Ideally the learner would be

such that he/she is keen on pursuing the same or similar path that buddy has taken. This allows for

closer communication with scientists, dealing with more individual focus. One scientist/engineer

could be a buddy to many proteges.


Extra Tuition:

Collaboration between the participating schools would allow for sharing of teaching methods/ideas.

This could possibly be extended to extra tuitions with the best practices being transferred among



Peace Garden:

Start a peace garden where you would grow food for children at school or the local community.

This project would incorporate numerous other mini-projects such as: recycling, monitoring rainfall

and weather patterns, experimenting with different seeds, irrigation systems, etc.


Transnational learning:

Turn as many aspects of syllabus into something practical, for example:

– look at wiring diagram of school to find parallel/series circuits and find ways to optimise


– look at possibilities of hydro-electric schemes

– build steam cars

– lend support to peace garden by testing alkalinity in soil or pollution levels in water

– build a web-site for the school

Basically finding ways to relate the things we learn in the classroom to real-life situation


 2.Science Fairs: Why and How?


Why do a school site Science Fair?

Science Fair is an opportunity for students, individually or as members of a team, to actually apply the skills they have learned in their study of science. For students who have not done any science, the science fair project will be difficult. But if your class and your school has made an effort to give students lots of experience solving problems, a science fair is a real chance for the kids to show what they’ve learned. It is also a chance to show the students and the school community how important and useful science is. Community partners, such as businesses that have made donations, can be invited as well to see the students’ work.


Deadlines and Timelines

Many teachers find more success if they break the science fair project down into manageable chunks for students, and have the different parts due on different days. Give students a timeline with due dates for their topic question, experimental design, display design, results, draft reports and final display. The book, The Complete Science Fair Handbook, by Fredericks and Asimov, (1990, Good Year Books) has two detailed timelines, as well as a great deal of practical advice for teachers and students. You may want to give students a chance to work on portions of the project in class, and peer review can be a valuable way for students to get ideas for improving their projects. This also gives you, the teacher, a chance to make it clear what your expectations are for their product.


Possible Problems


1. The Great Volcano: You have to decide what kind of projects you wish to see. If students are given little guidance, the majority of projects you will get will fall into two categories: the vinegar and baking soda volcano, and the Tide detergent test. If this is ok with you, fine. I find it pretty dull, and I don’t think students learn much from imitating TV commercials. The time to deal with this is at the beginning. Make it clear to your students that you want them to tackle a question that is new to them, not the same thing they did last year. Have them turn in their project topics ahead of time, and give them feedback if the projects look unacceptable. (Scientist could help with this step.)


2. The Rich get Richer: Some students have parents who are scientists or engineers. Other students are living in foster homes or shelters. How do we cope with the different resources these students bring to a project such as this? How does an impoverished student with no computer compete when it is time to create an attractive display? First of all, try to make it clear that this is a student project. Parents can be used as a resource, but they should not do the work (build the equipment, write the report, or build the display. Second, we teachers should provide space in our class schedule for some of the critical steps in the process. There should be class time for brainstorming and critiquing project ideas, practice collecting and graphing data, and writing conclusions. The students should be presented with models of good science projects, so they know what you are looking for.


Must it be judged?

Some schools bring scientists or science educators in to judge the student entries, but this is completely optional. You can give participation certificates just as well. However, your site is limited in the number of projects you can send to the District Science Fair, so you need to figure out a way to decide who goes on.


Must projects follow the “Scientific Method”?

Many teachers use a traditional scientific method approach. It should be made clear to students that working scientists do not always follow such a rigid sequence of steps. On the other hand, for a project of this type, the students should clearly state their question, hypothesis, materials and procedure, present their results and a conclusion summarizing their findings. See the Web Resources below for a variety of models you might wish to use.


How does this relate to an Inquiry approach?

For me, this is the big question. I want my students to develop their curiosity, and their skill at developing and answering their own questions. If the science fair won’t serve that goal, I do not have time for it! I see the science fair project as a chance for students to work more independently on the same kinds of investigations we have been doing in class. We have been learning to pose questions, to collect data, and to write conclusions that explain our results. I see the science fair as a chance for them to apply these skills. I hope we can add a more student-centered component to the District Science Fair, featuring students sharing their results with each other, rather than just creating a display as an end product.


 3.Science Exhibitions

The purpose of Science exhibitions is to develop scientific attitude in the young generation of

our country to make them realize the interdependence of science, technology and society and

the responsibility of the scientists of tomorrow. These objectives may be achieved by

presenting the exhibits as an exciting experience of creativity of children, innovations through

improvisations of science kits, and various devices and models for providing solutions to many

present and future socio‐economic problems particularly those confronted in the rural areas,

using available materials and local resources.


The exhibitions will help children and teachers to learn from each other experiences and

motivate them to design and develop something new and novel. It will also provide a medium

for popularizing science and increasing awareness among the public towards it. The objectives

of organizing science exhibitions may briefly be put as follows:


 stimulating interest in science and technology and inculcating scientific spirit in younger


 exploring and encouraging scientific and technological talent among children;  

 inculcating in them a sense of pride in their talent;  

 providing exploratory experiences, encouraging creative thinking and promoting

creative thinking and promoting psycho-motor and manipulative skills among children

through self devised exhibits or models or simple apparatus;

 encourage problem solving approach and developing the appropriate technologies,

especially for rural areas and integrating scientific ideas with daily life situations;

 popularizing science among masses and creating an awareness regarding the role of

science and technology in socio‐economic and sustainable growth of the country;


 4.Field Trips and Excursions

Arrangement of educational field tours and excursions is considered now as an essential part of school programmes. By moving outdoors, the pupils get concrete information and enrich their personal experience. The mental horizon of pupils gets widened.


Again, during the course of trip all arrangements of travelling, boarding and lodging are made by pupils. This provides a practical training to develop the qualities of initiative, resourcefulness and self-confidence.


The educational trips can be of varied interests. Visits to museums, forts, temples, caves, forests, mountains, lakes, valleys, canals and corn fields help in supplementing the teaching of social studies history, geography etc. Excursion to Red Fort, Agra Fort, Taj Mahal, Elora and Ajanta bring reality, clarity and vividness to the “dead matter” of history. Visits to industrial establishments, factories, laboratories etc. are very helpful to the students taking up science.


As per organization of Field Trips and Excursions it is very necessary that it should be properly planned to achieve the maximum benefit from excursion. It must be wisely be conceived, ably conducted and intelligently evaluated.


The teacher in-charge should posses’ complete information regarding the place of visit. He must impart all the valuable knowledge to the pupils. The railway reservation of accommodation for entire route of movement and lodging at each place of stay should be thoroughly planned before-hand. All haste should be avoided. The entire work must be divided among the workers and group-leaders, proper budgeting should be done and economy mast be observed.


Recreational activities like singing, storytelling, photography should be organized side by side. Lastly, care must be taken for maintenance of perfect discipline in the entire course of excursion.

The field trip is a type of laboratory experience which has many possibilities for providing activities appropriate to a number of important goals. Its use has been minimized by most teachers even though they may admit that it has some valuable possibilities. Like any other procedure in science teaching, it can be most functional only when it is carefully planned. There are a number of details concerned with planning if a trip is to be efficiently and effectively conducted. 


Usually it is some of these details that cause teachers to forego the trip as a school activity.Sometimes such terms as school excursion, school journey, or laboratory trip have been used instead of field trip. Often the latter term has been applied particularly to biology or to nature-study trips. However, there seems little choice between various names for this activity. The term field trip is used here to mean any activity involving one or more students or a class away from the school classroom and grounds pri

marily planned in connection with classwork. Because field trips do have the possibilities of being so valuable and interesting, it seems worth- while to indicate in detail some ways in which they may be planned most successfully. 


Purposes of Field Trips

Perhaps it is unnecessary to suggest that a field trip should not be taken simply because it is customary to have a field trip. As with all experiences, field trips should be used when this type of activity seems to be the most appropriate to achieve certain objectives. It is important, therefore, that both teachers and students are clear as to the purpose of a particular field trip.There are, of course, many purposes or objectives toward which field trips may contribute. Amongst these may be mentioned the following:


 To stimulate interest and motivate students



 To collect material



 To gain firsthand observations and contacts



 To obtain an overview or introduction to a unit of work



Qualities of a good Science Textbook


Text books are the most widely used of all instructional materials. Now a day’s text book has become a course of study. A set of unit plans and a learning guide as well. A text book should really design for the pupils rather than the teacher. Text book should stimulate reflective thinking and cultivate in students the scientific attitude.


In the teaching-learning process, the text-book occupies an important place. There is a saying “As is the text-book, so is the teaching and learning”. A good text-book can even replace class-room teaching. The science text-book should aim at aiding the pupils in the development of their personalities, in developing open mindedness, developing appreciation and understanding of nature and not merely stuffing their minds with facts.


Qualities of a good science Text book


Thurber and Collette suggested six criteria for choosing a good textbook. They are

  1. Content
  2. Organization
  3. Literary style vocabulary
  4. Illustrations
  5. Teaching aids
  6. Mechanical make up and appearance
  7. Authorship


I. Content

The content of text books for any one subject matter field is remarkable uniform about 85 percent of the content being common to all of them

  1. The content should be appropriate for the age level and experience backgrounds of the pupils
  2. The concept should not be too complex for the maturity of the pupils
  3. The content should be consistent with the pupil’s needs and interests
  4. The statements must be accurate

II Organization

  1. The subject matter should cover the whole syllabus
  2. Subject matter should be developed in psychological sequence
  3. The text book has to be organized into units which are based on student interests and probability of use
  4. Inductive approach is to be used whenever possible in introducing new topic
  5. At the end of each units there should be assignments informing to the following
  6. Application to life situations
  7. Self assessment test
  8. Suggestions for further reading
  9. Numerical questions if necessary
  10. Assessment for practicing skills
  11. The text book should be written in simple unambiguous scientific language. Prefer simple and compound sentence to complex sentences
  12. It should contain a glossary of technical terms used in the books
  13. It should suggest some good methods of learning’s
  14. Historical development of science should be attempted
  15. Adequate provision should be made to correlate science with other subject and crafts.
  16. It is better if the text book contains examples from the local environment
  17. There should be a detailed table of contents and index text books
  18. Controversial topics should be treated impartially
  19. The social significance of science should be stressed
  20. Headings and sub- headings should be in bold type
  21. Important principles should be set in italics
  22. Each text books should be accompanied by a laboratory manual and pupil’s work book
  23. It must be supplemented by a teacher’s hand book

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Nelson Mandela


III. Literary style and Vocabulary of text book

Literary style has much to do with the readability of the book. Although style is difficult to judge.

  1. Length of sentences
  2. Directness of sentences
  3. Number of ideas per seconds
  4. Use of lead sentence or paragraphs
  5. Presence or absence of irrelevant thoughtscontinuity of thought

While evaluating a text book the teacher must decide whether or not the vocabulary is excessive or in appropriate text book should be easy to read


IV Illustrations


  • The quality and the quantity of the illustrations should be considered.
  • Photographs should be clearly reproduced
  • Diagrams should be carefully made attractive
  • Color in the illustrations add to eye appeal and when properly used has considerable teaching value
  • The recently introduced transparencies made on plastic sheets are excellent teaching aids but

V.Teaching aids

  • The table of content because of cost it can only be used in small quantities in any one book.
  • Glossary should be included
  • Activities should be given the end of a chapter
  • Activities should be closely related to content
  • Photograph should have relation with content in the text
VII. Mechanical make- up and appearance


  • Artistic cover
  • Durability for binding
  • Size of the book
  • Good quality of paper
  • Length of line and size- legible
  • Attractive over all experience
  • Cover design and color should be appealing
  • Ample space to be left between lines to provide for ease in reading

VII. Authorship

Only such persons who have experience of teaching the subject should be allowed to become authors of school science text books. Such authors can understand the actual learning’s situations. Certain qualifications may also be prescribed for the authors. It will be better if some training is given to them


VIII. Characteristic

Besides these characteristics, the UNESCO Planning Mission has given some principles of writing text-books in U.S.S.R. and other countries. They are as follows:


(i) It should be first of all according to the requirements of the syllabus. It should also help in the improvement of the syllabus.


(ii) The facts, concepts etc., should be modern and within the comprehension of the pupils.


(iii) The contents should contain not only the established facts but also the problems which are being researched and thereby, arousing the interest in the pupils in these problems.


(iv) It should help in linking up science with life and practice. The pupils should be equipped with ‘know-how’ utilizing the knowledge in everyday life.


(v) The whole content of the text-book should be aimed at shaping the integrated modern scientific outlook which ensures success in mastering scientific knowledge and solution of the problems of vital issues. The content should be simple, brief, exact, definite and accessible.


Essential Characteristics of a good science textbook


In the teaching-learning process, the text-book occupies an important place. There is a saying “As is the text-book, so is the teaching and learning”. A good text-book can even replace class-room teaching. The science text-book should aim at aiding the pupils in the development of their personalities, in developing open mindedness, developing appreciation and understanding of nature and not merely stuffing their minds with facts.


Characteristics of a good science text-book

1 . The author: A good text-book is judged, at face, by the author, his qualification and experience.


2. Mechanical features of the text-book:


(a) The print and paper used and the binding of the text-book should be attractive. It should be hard and durable.

(b) The printing should be clear, legible and appropriately spaced.

(c) The book should be well-illustrated with diagrams, sketches and pictures.

(d) The size of the print, the language and experiments discussed should suit the age of the child and standard of the child.


3. The subject matter-its nature and organisation:


(a) The subject-matter should be developed as far as possible in psychological sequence. Care must be taken of the mental growth and interest of pupils.

(b) There should be consistency of the subject-matter and the text-book should satisfy the objectives of science teaching.

(c) Each chapter should begin with a brief introduction and end with a summary. ^

(d) Subject-matter should lead to the inculcation of scientific attitudes, disciplinary and cultural values.

(e) Each chapter should contain assignments at the end.

(f) During treatment of subject-matter, numerical examples should find place where necessary.

(g) Headings and sub-headings are given in bold letters.

(h) Each text-book should contain detailed Table of Contents and an index.

(i) The language of the book should be simple, clear, lucid, scientific and precise. The English equivalents of the terms should be always given in brackets.

(J) The text-book should give suggestions for improving scientific apparatus.

{k) Examples in the text-book should be given from local environment and from life experience.

(l) During the treatment of science subject in the text-book, care should be taken to see that it is correlated with other subjects like craft, social environment and physical environment.

(m) Each text-book should be accompanied by a laboratory manual.

Besides these characteristics, the UNESCO Planning Mission has given some principles of writing text-books in U.S.S.R. and other countries. They are as follows:

(i) It should be first of all according to the requirements of the syllabus. It should also help in the improvement of the syllabus.

(ii) The facts, concepts etc., should be modern and within the comprehension of the pupils.

(iii) The contents should contain not only the established facts but also the problems which are being researched and thereby, arousing the interest in the pupils in these problems.

(iv) It should help in linking up science with life and practice. The pupils should be equipped with ‘know-how’ utilizing the knowledge in everyday life.

(u) The whole content of the text-book should be aimed at shaping the integrated modern scientific outlook which ensures success in mastering scientific knowledge and solution of the problems of vital issues. The content should be simple, brief, exact, definite and accessible.





The textbook is one of the important aids in the teaching learning process and has occupied a pro vital role in the education of the school students, the process of education is most of the students in India  and even in abroad can be summed up in one phrase “as is the text book so is the teaching and learning”, The biology text book should aim at helping the student in the development of personality , open mindedness, critical thinking in order to enable him to discover new knowledge and understand nature.


Biology text book:


The primary aim of textbook is to enable the students to get the subject matter of a specific subject very easily and also in understand able manner .the text is the store house, which gives the subject matter in well-organized manner.in good biology textbook to motivate the student critical thinking and seasoning power of the students.


Thus text book should help also contain diagram pictures, photographs and line diagram. These help the students understand the subject matter clearly. It is used to as an effective teaching aid by the teacher. It is also useful to give practical work. Assignment and home work to the students so it has become necessary to concentrate on the quality of text book. This is more important for effective teaching. Text book also helps the students to find answer for the quality questions and doubts.


Quality of a good biology text book:


When a text book is selected, importance should be given to the quality and qualification of the author and physical structure is made up by the binding madam, publisher in addition to the subject matter.


The wrapper should be colorful to attract the students the author who write text book should give importance not only to money but also to welfare of the students.


Criteria used for the text book analysis:


While during the text book analysis some criteria should be taken into consideration. The analysis is made by considering the mechanical make up or physical factor and content analysis or academic factors of the text book.


  1. Size of the text book 
  2. Quality of the paper 
  3.  Front page of the text book 
  4.  Printing 
  5.  Margin of the text book and 
  6.  Binding.


The content analysis of the text book is


§ Selection of content


§ Presentation of content


§ Summary


§ Evaluation


§ Authorship and


§ Reference


Need for biology text book:


There are two different opinions about the need for the biology text books,  that biology is a subject to be learned by direct observation and experience and so it requires no text book. When the students learn biology through the text book they get limited knowledge.


The argument of those who require text book for biology is that the text book helps to organize and confirm the subject matter after observing the life specimen.


The visual aids like diagrams and pictures and photographs in the text book to motivate the students to develop interest in the subject. The questions exercise and points to think given at the end of the lesson. Motivate the students to carry out additional work and some projects.


Characteristics of a good science text book:


It is not only the subject matter and flow of language but the mechanical features like the paper the printing etc…also play an important role in the selection of a text book.


According to G. Mallionson the following points should be kept in mind while selecting a text book for junior high school science.




  1.  The level of complexity of the text corresponding to intellectual level of the students. 
  2.  The nature of the illustration
  3.  The style of writing. 
  4. The suggestions about supplementary activities 
  5. The clarity and organization of material 
  6. The provision for individual difference. However there are certain other criteria for a good science text book.



1.    The authors – this qualification and experience Only that person who has a certain amount of experience of teaching subject should be encourage to write a book because he can only be the better judge of teaching learning process.


Certain minimum academic qualification should be prescribed for the author.




2.    Mechanical features of the text book:


The quality of the paper should be fine, the printing should be appealing and the binding of the text book should be attractive. The size of the print should be according to the students. The book should contain good illustrations with sketches, diagrams, picture etc… as the Chinese saying goes “one picture is worth a thousand words”.




3.    The subject matter – Its nature and organization:


The subject matter should follow the psychological sequence .it should be according to the mental age and interests of the students. Each chapter should start with a brief introduction and end with a summary.The text book should be according to the aims and objectives of science teaching. There should be harmony of the subject matter. Each lesson should contain practice exercise at the end of the lesson conforming to the following.




a. Application to life situations


b. Suggested activities


c. Suggested readings


d. Experimental work of project


e. Numerical examples where necessary.




· The text book should contain a detailed table of contents and an index


· The language of the matter should be simple and precise


· At the end of the book, gloss dry of scientific terms with their English equivalents should be there


· Use of community resources should be given due emphasis


· Each text book should be accompanied by a laboratory manual or hand book


· It is better correlated with daily life situations and other subjects too


· Text book should certain headings and sub-headings in bold type


· To facilitate learning, some good methods of learning should be suggested


· Only standard terminology is regional languages evolved by central ministry of education and state governments should be used


· There must be a teacher’s guide book for each text – book for the help of the teacher


· The book should be reasonably priced


· Quotations should be in italics


· The book should also mention teaching aids


· It should cover the whole syllabus



Thus the text book is an integral part of any educational system. Even in the advanced countries of any the world, where the techniques of teaching learning have advanced a lot the text book is almost the role determinant of what is taught. That text book should not be used as the only source of instructional materials. It should be used as an aid in teaching.







Text-books are standardized collection of the subject-matter that has to be taught to the students. They facilitate the teaching of new concepts and skills and maintain the knowledge already acquired and help the correlation of the theoretical knowledge with the practical aspects of life


 Need for a Good Textbook in Mathematics

      Though there are contradicting opinions regarding the use of textbooks for mathematics teaching and learning, the following points support the use of mathematics textbooks.

         A mathematics textbook is very useful for a teacher in the following ways.

1. A textbook is written according to the syllabus and gives the outline of the course. Therefore it helps the teacher to decide about the limits and depth of the content to be presented to the students while teaching.

2. A textbook provides insight to the teacher in planning the lesson, in selecting the problems to be worked out, the methods of teaching to be adopted and the teaching aids to be used.

3. The textbook is written by experienced teachers of mathematics. By using textbooks, a teacher of mathematics, especially a beginner, can avail the experience and expertise of the authors.

4. The logical and psychological sequence followed in a textbook helps the teacher in presenting the subject matter in an orderly and systematic sequence.

5. A good textbook presents a variety of worked out examples on each topic. This helps the teacher in getting acquainted with different types of problems and the methods to solve them. This gives him more self-confidence while teaching.

6. The well-graded exercises provided after every topic in the textbook help the teacher in assigning suitable homework and assignment to the students to suit their intellectual capacity.

7. A textbook saves a lot of time for the teacher as he need not spend time to prepare problems and the solutions as they are readily available in the textbooks.

8. A mathematics textbook provides the teacher with the basic information considered essential in attaining the objectives of mathematics education and this helps the teacher to plan appropriate learning experiences.

A textbook is an important aid for learning mathematics.

    It is useful for the students in the following ways:

1. The textbook helps the pupils to relate, what they are learning, to life.

2. It helps to foster the right study attitude among the students since the textbook presents definite and concrete details in a scientific and intensive manner which could arouse the students’ interest and curiosity.

3. The textbook provides important source of materials for reviewing and recapitulating the lessons taught in the class.

4. It places within the reach of the pupil the theoretical development, worked out with much thought and a wide view of the bearings of the subject. This helps in meaningful learning.

5. The textbook helps in pre-preparation of the lesson and gets the students acquainted with lessons to be taught.

6. It provides adequate materials for drill and practice and thus helps in fixing the mathematical principles and formulae in the minds of the students.

7. It saves time and labour of the students as they need not copy the illustrative problems, exercise problems and homework problems.

8. It encourages self-study and independent work among the students.

9. It supplements classroom learning and helps in the realization of the objectives of mathematics education.

10. Textbooks help in clearing the doubts and misunderstanding relating to mathematical concepts, formulae and principles. It also helps in correcting the mistakes that occur while copying the formulae and problems from the blackboard.

11. The textbook helps in the extensive study of the subject as it presents different problems and various approaches to problem-solving.

12. New learning activities such as individual projects, laboratory experiments and demonstrations suggested in the textbook can be carried out by the students. It permits each student to read and carry out the activity at his own rate of comprehension.


Importance of text – books

Usefulness to the teacher:

1. It provides suitable subject matter and guideline regarding the syllabus of the subject. So the teacher neglects no portion of the syllabus and does not waste time on relevant details.

2. The text books help the teacher planning his lessons, deciding his method of teaching and preparing suitable aids.

3. It provides certain well illustrated examples about a topic.

4. Text books are usually written by the well experienced teachers and subject experts. A teacher can make use of their services by making use of their Text-books.


Usefulness to the students:

1. They provide the students with well graded exercises for drill, revision and review.

2. Text books help in pre-preparation. At their home, students may get themselves prepared for studying the next day lesson.

3. Text-books help in doing self-learning, self-study and helping the students to acquire the habit of independent learning.

4. Text-books are also quite useful in case a students has to remain absent from class due to one (or) the other reason.


Characteristics of Good Text-books:

1. It presents the subject-matter strictly in accordance with the latest-syllabus.

2. It is written by experienced teachers.

3. It should contain well graded problems for revision.

4. The day-to-day needs of the students and their physical and social environment should find due place in the text book.

5. It should be according to the aims and objectives of teaching Mathematics in that particular class.

6. The new development and invention in the filed of Mathematics should find their place in the text-book.

7. The psychological as well as logical order should be followed in the organization of the subject matter of the text-book.

8. All the definitions, concepts and principles given in the text book should be as clear and definite as possible.

9. It should make use of the national and international standard terminology in terms of symbols, formulae and definitions.

10. The principle “from simple to complex” should be followed in the arrangement of the topics of the text-book.

11. It should meet the abilities, experience and interest of the students for which it has been written. It should cater to the needs of all types of students – slow, average and fast learners.




       The qualities of a good textbook in mathematics can be broadly classified under the following heads.

1. Physical features.

2. Author.

3. Content.

4. Organisation and presentation.

5. Language

6. Exercise and Illustrations.

7. General


1. Physical features:

1. The paper used in the textbook should be of superior quality.

2. It should have quality printing and the binding of the book should be strong and durable.

3. The printing should be bold and easily readable.

4. It should have an appealing and attractive cover page.



2.      Author:

1. It should be written by qualified, experienced and competent teachers of mathematics or a committee of experts constituted by the state government.


3. Content:

          1. The textbook should be written according to prescribed syllabus and every aspect of the

                       Syllabus should be adequately covered.

2. It should be in accordance with the aims and objective of teaching mathematics in that

Particular class.

3. The content presented in the textbook should be accurate and up-to-date. It should include the recent developments in the mathematics relating to the content dealt with.

4. The contents of the textbook should have a direct, practical and social utility value.

5. Oral mathematics should find its due place in the textbook.

6. The answers given at the end of each section should be correct.

7. It should satisfy the demands of examination.


4. Organisation and Presentation:

           1. It should provide for individual differences. It should meet the needs of students of varying

                abilities, interests and attitudes.

                  2. There should be sufficient provision for revision, practice and review.

                  3. The textbook should relate the classroom learning to the real life needs and the physical and

                      social environments of the learners.

                  4. The subject matter in the textbook should be carefully organized with reference to the logical

                      as well as psychological considerations which make teaching effective.

5. The content should be organized in the increasing order of difficulty. Principle of verticle correlation should be followed to relate the present knowledge with the past and future.

6. The presentation of the content should foster right attitude towards self-study and self-reliance among pupils by suggesting project work, field work and laboratory work.

7. It should facilitate the use of analytic, synthetic, inductive deductive, problem solving and heuristic approaches to teaching.

8. The textbook should stimulate the initiative and originality of the students.

9. It should offer suggestions to improve study habits.


 5. Language:

                  1. The language used in the textbook should be simple and easily understandable and within         

                       the grasp of the pupils.

            2. The style and vocabulary used should be suitable to the age group of students for whom the    

                 book is written.

                  3. The terms and symbols used musts be those which are popular and internationally accepted.

                  4. All terms, and concepts and principles used in the text should be clearly and accurately stated     

                     and defined.


   6. Exercise and Illustrations:

                1. The presentation of the subject matter must be attractive and interesting with appropriate

                      illustrations in terms of pictures, diagrams and figures.

                2. The diagrams used in the textbook should be easily recognizable and geometric constructions

                    should be in proportion with the measurements prescribed by the problem.

                3. The illustrations should be accurate, clear and appropriate.

                4. It should provide adequate opportunities to motivate the students to solve problems by

                    Presenting adequate number of worked out problems and problems constructed from daily   

                    life. Situations requiring the student to apply mathematical principles and formulae for their   



              5. The text should contain some difficult problems or exercises to challenge the mathematically

                 Gifted students.

              6. There should be well graded exercises give at the end of every topic to satisfy the needs of all



     7. General:

           1. The textbook should be of latest edition with necessary modifications.

           2. The book should be of moderately priced and readily available in the market.


 Qualities of a good text-book:


         I.  Subject matter:  

                  1. Its usefulness

                    2. Proper organization

                    3. Coverage of the prescribed syllabus.

                    4Accordance with standard of students.

                    5. Logical and psychological sequence of presentation.

                    6Up-to-date content.


       II. Language and style:

1. Simple and clear language.

2. Simple language of question.

3. Number and type of questions.

4. Use of well-defined and authorized technical words.

5. Free from errors and mistakes.


      III. Form of price:

1. Impressive get up

2. Good and mistake less printing.

3. The type of print according to the age group of students.

4. Clear printing of figures and graphs.

5. Use of good paper.


    IV. Author and publication:

1. Qualification. Rank and Teaching Experience of the author.

2. Expert of the subject & specialization.

3. The reputation of the publisher.

4. Year of publication.



Assessment is the means by which we determine what students know and can do. It tells teachers, students, parents, and policymakers something about what students have learned: the mathematical terms they recognize and can use, the procedures they can carry out, the kind of mathematical thinking they do, the concepts they understand, and the problems they can formulate and solve. It provides information that can be used to award grades, to evaluate a curriculum, or to decide whether to review fractions. Assessment can help convince the public and educators that change is needed in the short run and that the efforts to change mathematics education are worthwhile in the long run. Conversely, it can thwart attempts at change. Assessment that is out of synchronization with curriculum and instruction gives the wrong signals to all those concerned with education.


Mathematics assessments are roughly divided into two categories: internal and external. Internal assessments provide information about student performance to teachers for making instructional decisions. These assessments may be for high or low stakes, but they exert their chief influence within the walls of the classroom. External assessments provide information about mathematics programs to state and local agencies, funding bodies, policymakers, and the public. That information can be used either to hold program managers accountable or to monitor the program’s level of performance. These assessments are used primarily by people outside the immediate school community. Although internal assessment is perhaps more obviously and directly connected with the improvement of mathematics learning than external assessment, both types of assessment should advance mathematics education.


Six ways to use authentic assessment math in the classroom


Performance assessment

Students can demonstrate what they have learned and how to solve problems through a collaborative effort in solving a complex problem together. Not only do they learn how to work in a team, but also how to brainstorm and utilize their separate grains of knowledge to benefit the whole.


Short investigations

Typically, a short investigation starts with a basic math problem (or can be adapted to any other school subject) in which the student can demonstrate how he or she has mastered the basic concepts and skills. As the teacher, ask the students to interpret, calculate, explain, describe or predict whatever it is they are analyzing. These are generally 60- to-90 minute tasks for an individual (or group projects) on which to work independently, writing answers to questions and then interviewed separately.


Open-response questions


A teacher can assess the student’s real-world understanding and how the analytical processes relate by, in a quiz setting, requesting open responses, like:

  • a brief written or oral answer
  • a mathematical solution
  • a drawing
  • a diagram, chart or graph

These open-ended questions can be approximately 15-minute assessments and can be converted into a larger-scale project.



As students learn concepts throughout the school year, they can be documented and will reveal progress and improvements as well as allow for self-assessment, edits and revisions. They can be recorded in a number of ways, including:

  • journal writing
  • review by peers
  • artwork and diagrams
  • group reports
  • student notes and outlines
  • rough drafts to finished work


After the teacher has clearly explained and provided the expectations prior to the project and then, once the projects are complete, ask the students to evaluate their own projects and participation. Responding to the following questions will help students learn to assess themselves and their work objectively:

  • What was the most difficult part of this project for you?
  • What do you think you should do next?
  • If you could do this task again, would you do anything differently? If yes, what?
  • What did you learn from this project?

Multiple-choice questions

Usually, multiple-choice questions do not reflect an authentic assessment math context. There are multiple-choice questions being developed that reveal an understanding of the mathematical ideas required as well as integrating more than one concept. These questions are designed to take about 2 or 3 minutes each.


Traits developed through authentic assessment math tests

This situational type of learning in which students are learning lessons on how to solve real-life problems can be utilized in mathematics. These ideas are presented as follows:



  • Thinking and reasoning: Causing students to interact in such activities that include gathering data, exploration, investigation, interpretation, reasoning, modeling, designing, analyzing, formation of hypotheses, use of trial and error, generalization and solution-checking.
  • Settings: Allowing the students to work individually or in smaller groups.
  • Mathematical tools: The students learn to use symbols, tables, graphs, drawings, calculators and computers.
  • Attitudes and dispositions: Students in this type of learning environment learn persistence, self-regulating behaviors and reflection, participation and a special enthusiasm for learning various kinds of situations.



Assessment in Science – https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/science/found/s2/assessment.pdf



Conclusion – This contains unit 04. More parts will be uploaded soon. Visit beled.in for more free articles.





Co-Curricular Activities in School

Importance of Co-Curricular Activities for Students





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